Neural Stem Cells
1. Introduction to Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and neurogenesis. How to build a brain. Historical perspective.
2. Early neurogenesis in mammalian development: initial regional specification of NSCs; different types of NSCs. Neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells. Early neurogenic phase and symmetric versus asymmetric divisions.
3. Late neurogenesis in mammalian development: middle and late neurogenic phases, gliogenesis. Outer radial glia in human cortical development and evolution.
4. Adult SVZ neurogenic niche: structure and definition of the NSC component.
5. Physiological relevance of adult SVZ neurogenesis: olfactory neurons, relevance in human. Adult hippocampal SGZ neurogenic niche: structure and definition of the NSC component, rodent versus human. Physiological relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
6. NSCs in vitro: tissue-derived systems, neurospheres and adherent cell culture.
7. NSCs and neurogenesis in vitro: pluripotent stem cell-derived neural systems. Neural induction and directed neural differentiation.
8. NSCs in disease: neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.
9. Brain tumors and tumor initiating cells.
10. Regenerative approaches to the CNS: cell transplantation in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and spinal cord injury.
11. Advanced 3D neural systems: retina and brain organoids.
12. Direct reprogramming to neural fates.